The challenge in spectrum management is to strike a balance between intense competition and productive efficiency. On the one hand, government agencies need to focus on increasing number of players in the market to intensify competition. On the other hand, however, operators need sufficient economies of scale to ensure efficient production. This is a difficult balance to strike. Even though the objective in spectrum management is universally accepted – to make consumers better off – the means need to be tailored separately in each case. JM Economics provides advisory to policy makers and regulators in spectrum management.